酒产业集群——生产力解放的更高形式 (Alcohol Industry Clustering—higher form of productivity liberation)

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企业选址是实现生产的第一环节。如何选址受很多方面要素的影响:资源、市场、交通、环境等,这一般都是企业首先要考虑的问题。这些要素决定了产出的成本,决定了能否进行生产或持续生产。除非必要,一般产出小于投入的事,人们是不会去做的,这已经是经济学的基本行为。

Served as the primary issue to be considered for businesses, the choice of location, which can be influenced by many factors such as resources, market, transportation, environment and others, is deemed as the first link to reap a sound production. All these factors determine the cost of output and whether a production can take place, or whether the production rate can be maintained. Unless necessary, it is less likely that people would take on businesses that are the opposite of cost-efficient, which is a basic rule from an economic perspective. 产出与成本的判定,是动态变化着的。产出与成本的稳定是相对的,不稳定是常态,是具体的历史的统一。

The determination of cost and output is dynamic and changing, where stability of output and cost is relative, while instability is the norm, featuring a concrete, historical unity.

这是因为,资源的开采是动态变化的,当资源供给减少,产出也会减少,反之亦然。市场需求也在不断随人们生活品质的提高发生着变化;交通、环境等所有人工自然的形成,都随人类活动在不断的变化着,等等。

This is because the exploitation of resources is dynamically changing, and when the supply of resources decreases, the output drops, and vice versa. Market demand, too, transforms as people’s living quality improves. Transportation, environment, and the artificial nature are also constantly altering under the influence posed by human activities.

如果说企业存在最优的选址、规模、产出的话,那一定是在一定区域内与当时当地的要素相匹配。但这种匹配会随着企业供给要素的变化,产出与供给之间会逐渐变得不匹配。人们为了匹配,就得改变这种供给。要改变这种供给,就得让要素或企业流动。让要素流动就得促进流通,让企业流动就得推动企业、产业在空间转移。这就是不断促进资源合理流动和产业转移,实现资源配置的帕累托最优——这是永远都难以完成的经济学的使命,也是无数的经济学家、管理科学家们永远都难以做完的课题。

If there is an optimal location, scale, and output for a business, it must be a place where businesses and the local factors are a good match. However, this matching will gradually become a mismatch between output and supply, for the supply factor can’t remain unchanged. To maintain the matching, people will have to change the supply model, and to do that, mobility in respective factors and businesses becomes necessary. The flow of factors requires a quick circulation so as to facilitate the industrial relocation. A good resource and industrial relocation contribute to achieving a Pareto Optimality in resource allocation, which is the mission of economics that is always difficult to be accomplished, and it is also a topic that countless economists and management scientists will never seem to be able to finish.

产业集群是这种高层次资源匹配的最好形式。集群模式下,匹配要素在满足单个企业需求的情况下,还能产生外部性,即在不增加新的投入的情况下,实现企业产出的增加。理论研究表明,这是由知识型要素的非耗散性决定的,这也是人们更多的去重视产业集群问题的原因。

The best form catering to such high-level resource matching is business clustering, where the matching factors meet not only the needs of an individual business, but can generate externalities as well, meaning boosting business output without further input. Studies showed that it is a result of the non-dissipative feature of knowledge-based factors, and a reason drawing people’s attention to the aspect business clustering.

酒产业的集群与一般的产业集群相比,外部性更强。这是因为酒产业链互联互通这一产业集群的特征,在酒生产过程中表现得更加明显。酒的工艺流程、生产酒的微生物环境、粮食原料的批量运输、技术工人的培训、酒营销链统一打造等等,都存在产业链共享、环境共创等正的外部性。有利于在集群区域内,以较小的投入,获取更多的产出。特别是酒这种没有微生物环境,就难以生产的特殊产品,集群对这一产业显得更加重要。以茅台镇为例,在茅台镇一般都能生产出较好的酒。因此,从2005年开始,国家科技部面向全国招投标,研究实施了茅台镇的“腾笼换鸟”战略,这一战略让与酒产业无关的企业迁出茅台镇,这一个伟大的战略打造,为今天贵州酒产业成为支柱产业,打下了坚实的基础。贵州酒产业的这一集群,实现了类似法国波尔多葡萄酒集群的效果。

Clusters in the alcohol industry have stronger externalities than general industrial clusters. This is because the interconnectedness of the alcohol industry chain, a characteristic of this industry, is more evident in the alcohol production process. There also exists positive externalities in many aspects, specifically embodied in the wine making process, including the microbial environment which is crucial for this process, grain raw material transportation, staff training, joint efforts in forging market chains and so forth, leading to a higher output with less input under the context of business clusters. Without a favorable microbial environment, there could be little chance to produce premium alcohol products, which in turn reiterates the importance of business clusters. Moutai, for example, produces superior baijiu. Starting from 2005, the Ministry of Science and Technology of China invited bids from all over the country to study and implement the strategic policy dubbed “clearing the cage to make way for new birds (saving more space for high-tech industries)”, allowing enterprises that are unrelated to the alcohol industry to move out of the Moutai. The policy has laid a solid foundation for the alcohol industry to become the pillar industry in Guizhou province. This clustering of Guizhou’s alcohol industry achieves a similar effect to that of the Bordeaux wine clustering in France.

推动产业集群的形成,是解放生产力的一种重要方式。“解放”是需要“革命”的。一些时候,这种“革命”可能由于人为干预要素的配置,短期内还会增加产品的生产成本。但,为谋取长远的效益增长,政府这只手还是需要的。只是为弥补这种政府干预给企业造成的短期损失,往往需要政府及时的给予企业补贴。各国经验表明,努力发挥政府和市场两手的作用,才能快速形成产业集群,这无论是社会主义条件下或是资本主义条件下的市场经济,通常都采用的方法。

Promoting the formation of industrial clusters is an important way to liberate more productivity.  “Liberation” requires “revolution”. In some cases, this “revolution” may also increase the cost of production in the short term due to human interventions. However, for a long-term point of view, it is necessary for the visible hand, the government, to involve. Timely government subsidies to enterprises are often required, this is only to compensate for the short-term losses caused to enterprises out of government intervention. Experience from multiple countries shows that efforts to play the role of both the government and the market must be made in order to quickly form industrial clusters, be it under socialist conditions or capitalist conditions in the market economy, such methods are usually adopted.

产业集群实现新的产业“革命”,这远比新的绿地投资,能更好实现资金节约和资源的有效配置。这一点已逐渐被政府和市场的努力所证明,并逐渐成为推动经济快速增长的新的力量。

Industry clusters realize a new industrial “revolution”, whose value outweighs the new greenfield investment in achieving capital savings and effective allocation of resources.集群的更高层面是企业在更大区域内实现产业分工。真正的区域经济“一体化”决不是产出的同质化,是合理的产业分工和产业布局的形成。在这方面,经过数十年的努力,国际分工已取得了很好的成效,各国进出口的不断增长,就是很好的见证。进入新世纪后,中国政府一直在推动企业跨区域重组,推动生产要素跨区域流动。我们有理由相信,随着这一更高层面的产业集群的不断形成,包括酒产业在内的产业的新的“革命”,一定会在更高层面上推动生产力的解放。

The higher level of clustering is the industrial division of labor among enterprises in a larger region. True regional economic “integration” is never about the homogenization of output, but the formation of a reasonable industrial division of labor and industrial layout. In this regard, after decades of efforts, the international division of labor has achieved good results, witnessing the continuous growth of exports and imports in different countries. Since we entered the new era, the Chinese government has been promoting the cross-regional restructuring of enterprises and the cross-regional flow of production factors. We have good reasons to believe that with a higher-level of industrial clustering, a new “revolution” in industries including the alcohol industry, will certainly drive a momentous push in liberating productivity at a higher level.

 

陈泽明

Dr.Chen Zeming